18 1,000.00 37 34,000.00
19 2,000.00 38 37,000.00
20 3,000.00 39 41,000.00
21 4,000.00 40 44,000.00
22 5,000.00 41 48,000.00
23 7,000.00 42 51,000.00
24 8,000.00 43 55,000.00
25 9,000.00 44 59,000.00
26 11,000.00 45 64,000.00
27 12,000.00 46 68,000.00
28 14,000.00 47 73,000.00
29 16,000.00 48 78,000.00
30 18,000.00 49 84,000.00
31 20,000.00 50 90,000.00
32 22,000.00 51 96,000.00
33 24,000.00 52 102,000.00
34 26,000.00 53 109,000.00
35 29,000.00 54 116,000.00
36 32,000.00 55 120,000.00

Ahli boleh mengeluarkan simpanan sepertimana berikut :- 

20% daripada jumlah simpanan yang melebihi Simpanan Asas dalam Akaun 1 

Jumlah miminum pengeluaran pelaburan adalah RM1,000.00 

Jumlah maksimum tidak melebihi 20% daripada jumlah simpanan yang melebihi Simpanan Asas 

Formula : (Akaun 1 – Simpanan Asas) x 20% 



 Conventional Funds

Existing Fund Name
New Name
Balanced Returns Fund
CIMB-Principal Balanced Fund
Income Plus Fund
CIMB-Principal Income Plus Balanced Fund
SBB Global Balanced Fund
CIMB-Principal Global Balanced Fund
SBB Retirement Balanced Fund
CIMB-Principal Balanced Growth Fund
SBB Savings Fund
CIMB-Principal Balanced Income Fund
Institutional Bond Fund
CIMB-Principal Institutional Bond Fund
Institutional Bond Fund 2
CIMB-Principal Institutional Bond Fund 2
Lifetime Bond Fund
CIMB-Principal Bond Fund
Multi-Maturity Income Fund 1
CIMB-Principal Multi-Maturity Income Fund 1
SBB Bond Fund
CIMB-Principal Bond Fund 2
SBB Returns Guaranteed Fund Series 1
CIMB-Principal Returns Guaranteed Fund Series 1
Strategic Bond Fund
CIMB-Principal Strategic Bond Fund
Xcess Income Fund
CIMB-Principal Xcess Income Fund
Emerging Asia Fund
CIMB-Principal Emerging Asia Fund
Future Goals Fund
CIMB-Principal Equity Aggressive Fund 3
Global Titans Fund
CIMB-Principal Global Titans Fund
Hidden Treasures Fund
CIMB-Principal Small Cap Fund
SBB Asian Equity Fund
CIMB-Principal Asian Equity Fund
SBB Composite Index Fund
CIMB-Principal KLCI-Linked Fund 2
SBB Crystal Equity Fund
CIMB-Principal Equity Growth Fund
SBB Double Growth Fund
CIMB-Principal Equity Growth & Income Fund
SBB Emerging Companies Growth Fund
CIMB-Principal Small Cap Fund 2
SBB Equity Income Fund
CIMB-Principal Equity Income Fund
SBB Global Growth Fund
CIMB-Principal Global Growth Fund
SBB HGF Sequel Fund
CIMB-Principal Equity Fund 4
SBB High Growth Fund
CIMB-Principal Equity Fund 2
SBB Index-Linked Fund
CIMB-Principal KLCI-Linked Fund
SBB Premium Capital Fund
CIMB-Principal Equity Fund
SBB Sector Rotation Fund
CIMB-Principal Equity Aggressive Fund 2
SBB Strategic Equity Fund
CIMB-Principal Equity Aggressive Fund 1
SBB Value Fund
CIMB-Principal Equity Fund 3
Mixed Asset
Global Asset Spectra Fund
CIMB-Principal Global Asset Spectra Fund
Money Market
SBB Money Market Fund
CIMB-Principal Money Market Fund
Xcess Cash Fund
CIMB-Principal Xcess Cash Fund
Structured Product
Global Income Fund
CIMB-Principal Global Income Fund
Islamic Funds
Existing Fund Name
New Name
Lifetime Dana Barakah
CIMB Islamic Balanced Growth Fund
SBB Dana Al-I’tidal
CIMB Islamic Balanced Income Fund
SBB Dana Al-Mizan
CIMB Islamic Balanced Fund
Lifetime Dana Fayyad
CIMB Islamic Short Term Sukuk Fund
Lifetime Dana Wafiq
CIMB Islamic Enhanced Sukuk Fund
SBB Dana Al-Hafiz
CIMB Islamic Sukuk Fund
Asia Pacific Adil Fund
CIMB Islamic Asia Pacific Equity Fund
Lifetime Dana Mubarak
CIMB Islamic Equity Aggressive Fund
SBB Dana Al-Azam
CIMB Islamic Small Cap Fund
SBB Dana Al-Faiz
CIMB Islamic Micro Cap Fund
SBB Dana Al-Hikmah
CIMB Islamic Enhanced Index Fund
SBB Dana Al-Ihsan
CIMB Islamic DALI Equity Growth Fund
SBB Dana Al-Ihsan 2
CIMB Islamic DALI Equity Fund
SBB Dana Al-Ikhlas
CIMB Islamic Equity Fund


Fund Name  Initials  Code

Conventional Equity Funds

CIMB-Principal Equity Aggressive Fund 1   EPF Approved Funds  EAF1  21
CIMB-Principal Equity Aggressive Fund 3   EPF Approved Funds  EAF3  40
CIMB-Principal Equity Fund   EPF Approved Funds  EF  10
CIMB-Principal Equity Fund 2   EPF Approved Funds  EF2  04
CIMB-Principal Equity Growth & Income Fund    EGIF  01
CIMB-Principal KLCI-Linked Fund    KLF  07
CIMB-Principal Small Cap Fund   EPF Approved Funds  SCF  75

Conventional Mixed Assets Funds

CIMB-Principal Balanced Fund   EPF Approved Funds  BF  41
CIMB-Principal Balanced Income Fund   EPF Approved Funds  BIF  03
CIMB-Principal Income Plus Balanced Fund   EPF Approved Funds  IPBF  42

Conventional Fixed Income & Money Market Funds

CIMB-Principal Bond Fund   EPF Approved Funds  BOF  43
CIMB-Principal Deposit Fund   EPF Approved Funds  MMF  20
CIMB-Principal Money Market Income Fund    MMIF  47
CIMB-Principal Strategic Bond Fund   EPF Approved Funds  SBF  74

Conventional Regional & Global Funds

CIMB-Principal ASEAN Equity Fund    ASEAN  35
CIMB-Principal Asia Infrastructure Equity Fund    AIEF  B9
CIMB-Principal Asia Pacific Dynamic Income Fund    ADIF  E6
CIMB-Principal Asian Equity Fund    AEF  31
CIMB-Principal Australian Equity Fund    CPAEF  E3
CIMB-Principal China-India-Indonesia Equity Fund    CIIEF  E2
CIMB-Principal Equity Growth Fund    EGF  16
CIMB-Principal Equity Income Fund    EIF  17
CIMB-Principal Global Growth Fund    GGF  29
CIMB-Principal Global Titans Fund    GTF  59
CIMB-Principal Greater China Equity Fund    GCEF  34
CIMB-Principal Lifecycle Fund 2017    LF2017  B1
CIMB-Principal Lifecycle Fund 2022    LF2022  B2
CIMB-Principal Lifecycle Fund 2027    LF2027  B3
CIMB-Principal MENA Equity Fund    MENA  B8

Conventional Close-ended Funds

CIMB-Principal China Recovery Structured Fund    CRSF  C4
CIMB-Principal Strategic Income Bond Fund    SIBF  E5
CIMB-Principal Strategic Income Bond Fund 2    SIBF2  E9

Islamic Equity Funds

CIMB Islamic DALI Equity Fund    DALI2  15
CIMB Islamic DALI Equity Growth Fund   EPF Approved Funds  DALI  05
CIMB Islamic DALI Equity Theme Fund   EPF Approved Funds  DALI3  B7
CIMB Islamic Equity Aggressive Fund   EPF Approved Funds  IEAF  44
CIMB Islamic Small Cap Fund    ISCF  13

Islamic Mixed Asset Funds

CIMB Islamic Balanced Fund   EPF Approved Funds  IBF  08
CIMB Islamic Balanced Growth Fund   EPF Approved Funds  IBGF  73
Islamic Fixed Income & Money Market Funds

CIMB Islamic Deposit Fund    IDF  C6
CIMB Islamic Enhanced Sukuk Fund   EPF Approved Funds  IESF  76
CIMB Islamic Money Market Fund   EPF Approved Funds  IMMF  39
CIMB Islamic Sukuk Fund   EPF Approved Funds  ISF  25

Islamic Regional & Global Funds

CIMB Islamic Asia Pacific Equity Fund    IAPEF  45
CIMB Islamic Equity Fund    IEF  26
CIMB Islamic Global Commodities Equity Fund    CIGCEF  C9
CIMB Islamic Global Emerging Markets Equity Fund    IGEMF  C3
CIMB Islamic Global Equity Fund    CIGEF  38
CIMB Islamic Greater China Equity Fund    IGCEF  C5
CIMB Islamic Kausar Lifecycle Fund 2017    ILF2017  B4
CIMB Islamic Kausar Lifecycle Fund 2022    ILF2022  B5
CIMB Islamic Kausar Lifecycle Fund 2027    ILF2027  B6

Islamic Close-ended Funds

CIMB Islamic Commodities Structured Fund 2    ICSF2  C2 


Different Categories of Funds

 Unit trust funds are also known as mutual funds. These funds fall into 5 primary categories:
  1. Equity funds, also called growth funds. They invests primarily in stocks up to 95%. Meant for aggressive-risk investors. Has higher volatility and risk-return rewards.
  2. Income fund, also called bond funds. They invest primarily in corporate or government bonds and debentures up to 90%. Meant for conservative-risk investors. Low volatility. However, if the bonds are forfeited due to non-performance, the fund will also experience loss.
  3. Balance funds,invests in BOTH stocks and bonds usually in the ratio of 60% :40%. This type of fund is suitable for moderate-risk investors. Medium volatility is due to lesser exposure to stocks.
  4. Money market funds. They make short-term investments (usually of less than 365 days) and meant for temporary "parking" the liquid funds whilst waiting for opportunities to invest or to sit out a volatile market.
  5. Capital Guaranteed funds are funds that invests primarily in bonds and have a little exposure in stocks in the approximate ratio of 85% : 15%. These funds are usually open to subscription for a limited period of 30 days only. Investors are expected to lock in their investments for a minimum of 3 years to enjoy the capital guarantee feature.
 Every fund in each category has a net asset value (NAV) and each NAV differs daily. The price changes once a day, at 5 pm, when the markets close for the day.

All transactions for the day are executed based on the NAV. The Managers will SELL the units to you based on the NAV plus a Service Charge of between 3% - 10%. They will BUY your units back from you at the NAV price.

Equity / Growth funds

For the more aggressive investor.

The objective of equity funds, also called growth funds is to provide capital appreciation over the medium to long term. In our local (Malaysian) context, funds of this category generally invest up to 90% - 95% of its Net Asset Value into stocks and shares of companies listed or unlisted in the KL Stock Exchange or otherwise known as Bursa Malaysia. There are currently more than 900 stocks listed in Bursa Malaysia.

This category of funds will usually have at least 5% in cash or cash-related assets to meet redemption requirements. (Redemption means cashing-out by an investor). Growth schemes are ideal for investors who have a long term outlook of the market and am seeking growth over a period of time.

In Malaysia, Growth Funds has further developed into:
i. Blue-Chip Growth Funds,
ii. Small-Cap Growth Funds,
iii. Sector Growth Funds,
iv. Index-linked Growth Funds.
v. Global Growth Funds.

Growth Funds are suitable for the Aggressive Risk Investor who is willing to take extra risk in order to have a potentially higher capital gains reward. This type of fund can be very volatile due to the high exposure of its' assets in stocks and shares trading.

Money market funds


Parking money while waiting for the right opportunity

The aim of money market funds is to provide easy liquidity, preservation of capital and moderate income to the conservative investor.

It is also ideal for corporate and individual investors as a means to park their surplus funds for short periods of even 1 day, whilst waiting for the right opportunity. There is no service charge nor redemption costs.

These funds generally invest in short-term instruments (less than 365 days) such as treasury bills, certificates of deposits, commercial papers and inter-bank call money.

Returns on these funds fluctuate depending upon the interest rates prevailing in the market.

Capital guaranteed funds

For the conservative investor.


This type of funds usually requires you to invest for a period of 3 or 5 years. At the end of the period, your capital is guaranteed.

Capital guaranteed fund is a hybrid fund consisting of bonds which will “grow” to 100% of your capital upon maturity and a small portion in equities to give the fund the “profit”. Unless the bonds issuer defaults, the capital is sure to be preserved.

 Income / bond funds

For the conservative investor.


The objective of income funds is to provide regular and steady income to investors.
Such schemes generally invest in fixed income securities such as bonds, corporate debentures and Government securities. Income Funds are ideal for capital stability and regular income.Some risk to such funds are when the bond issuer defaults.

Costs of Investing

Front Load Service Fee.

This is a front-end fee that Unitholders have to pay. The fees normally range between 5%-10%. This charge is also known as the “spread” between the Sell Price and the Buy Price. The bulk of this fee is the agents' commission.
For example, if the spread is a 5% service charge, it means that if you applied to invest RM100,000 into a fund, RM5000 will be deducted as service charge and the balance of RM95,000 will be invested. The RM95,000 is known as the Net Asset Value (NAV).

Management fee.

This fee normally ranges from 1% - 1.5% per annum of the NAV of the Fund and is used to cover the costs of managing your investment. It is used to pay for Administrative costs as well as to pay the Investment Managers. This cost is calculated and accrued daily from the NAV of the Fund and payable monthly to the Fund Manager irregardless of the performance of the Manager.

Trustee fee.

This fee normally ranges about 0.07% per annum of the NAV of the Fund with a minimum charge of RM18,000 per annum. This fee is used to pay the Trustee for their services, which is primarily to keep watch that the fund is being managed according to the guidelines set out in the Trust Deed. This cost is also calculated daily and is deducted from the NAV of the Fund.

Fund expenses. 

This includes audit fee, tax fee and administration expenses like printing of prospectuses, interim and annual reports, distribution cheques, postage, printing and other services properly incurred in the administration of the fund. These costs are paid out of the fund’s assets.

Redemption & Switch fees

Redemption charges.

Most front-end load funds do not carry a redemption charge. However some funds like Capital Guaranteed funds do impose redemption charges of 1%-2% if the redemptions are done before the maturity date in order to discourage premature redemptions.
Other funds that do not have a front-end load may have redemption charges that works on a reducing basis. Example, if redemption is done during the 1st year, you pay 3% of the NAV. If redemption is done during the second year, you pay 2%, if done on the 3rd year, you pay 1%, if done after 3 years, you do not pay any fees.

Switching fees.

In addition to the above fees, there are also secondary fees like fund switching fee, transfer fees etc. Fund switching is a term used to describe an investor who redeems or sells-off a fund and using the proceeds to invest in another fund which is managed by the same Fund Manager.
Some funds do not impose any fees for the first 2 switches in a calendar year, whilst other allow only 1 free switch. Yet there are also funds that do not allow free switching and there is a charge on every time a switch is made. Such fees are usually mentioned in the fund's prospectus.

Measuring Profits

Are you making profits?

The most accurate measure of a mutual fund's performance is its gross profit or loss. It is the total redemption value minus the capital invested. It's typically reported as percentage return and is derived by dividing the gross profit by the amount of your initial investment.
How can you know whether you have profitted or not? It's simple. This is how you calculate.

For example: 

You invested RM12,000 into fund ATC at a unit price of RM0.50 a year ago. This purchase will result in your having 24,000 units of the fund. If the manager's current buy price is RM0.52, your current value will be: 24,000 units x RM0.52 buy price per unit = RM12,480. This means your gross profit is RM480.00.
Your gross profit is then: RM480 / RM12,000 = 4%.

If your investment was made 2 years ago and the gross profit is the same i.e. 4%, then your annualized profit is approximately: 4% / 2 years = 2% per annum.

Gross profit % and Annualized profit (ROI% p.a.)

Gross profit is profits without consideration of the duration of investment.
Annualized profit: When the investment duration is for periods longer than a year, the annualized profit is measured by dividing the gross profit with the number of years invested (as in the example above).
Among the key factors that influence gross profit are: 
  • the direction of the overall market or markets in which the fund is invested,  
  • the performance of the fund's portfolio of investments, and 
  • the fund's fees and expenses.


8 Principles Of Sucessful Unit Trust Investing

Unit trust investing is a convenient and sensible way to build one's wealth in the medium and long term. Investment specialists will manage the investments and spread the risks through careful diversification. There are eight principles which are helpful to you in making a wise decision in unit trust investing.


What Is A Unit Trust And How Does It Work?    
A unit trust is a professionally managed investment fund which pools together the money of investors who have similar objectives. The total sum is then invested in a diversified investment portfolio comprising stocks, bonds and other assets in accordance with a fund’s investment objective. The unit price of a fund is its net asset value (NAV), derived from its assets less its liabilities and divided by its total number of units. Unlike stocks, whose prices are changed at each trade, a fund's NAV is based on the closing prices of the stocks in its portfolio on each trading day.
To protect your rights and interests, an independent trustee will ensure that the unit trust fund manager like us complies with the requirements of the deed, Capital Markets And Services Act 2007, the SC Guidelines and the Securities Commission Act 1993. We also appoint an approved company auditor under the Companies Act 1965 to audit a fund's accounts before we publish the fund's annual report.

What Is A Typical Unit Trust Fund Investors' Profile?
A typical unit trust fund investors' profile would be individuals who/corporations that:
have a similar investment objective as a fund.
are willing to take some form of risk through participation in the stock market and/or fixed income market.
want to hold investments that are liquid and easily redeemed.
want to enjoy a lower transaction cost while investing in the stock market.
want to have a well diversified investment portfolio which is professionally managed.

What Are The General Benefits Of Investing In A Unit Trust Fund?
Diversification - For any given amount of investment return, investment risks may be spread over a wide variety of securities in different countries, sectors and securities for a small investment sum. On your own, this will normally require a large amount of effort and capital.
Professional fund
- A fund's pooled resources makes it cost-effective to engage a team of qualified and experienced in-house investment professionals such as our fund manager. We conduct full-time regular investment research and analysis and make on-site visits to gain greater insights into the investments that a fund holds. We also invest in research facilities and information resources essential for making sound investment decisions.
Liquidity - We stand ready to repurchase all or part of your unitholding on any business day.
Hassle free - It is convenient to buy and sell investment units and you are spared the time, trouble and expense of researching and monitoring investments on your own if you are to invest directly in the stock market.
Affordability - Only a relatively small amount of money is needed to participate in a professionally managed portfolio of investments. For personal direct investments, you will have to invest considerably more in order to have the same reach in investment opportunities and to benefit from the same level of expertise in portfolio management.

What Are The Risks Of Investing In A Unit Trust Fund?
Company specific
This risk refers to the individual risk of the respective companies issuing securities. This risk could be a result of changes to the business performance of the company, consumer tastes and demand, lawsuits, competitive operating environment and management practices. Developments in a particular company in which a fund has invested would result in fluctuations in the share price of that company and thus the value of a fund's investments. This risk is minimised through the well-diversified nature of a fund.

In addition, this risk may occur when an investee company's business or fundamentals deteriorate or when or if there is a change in management policy resulting in a reduction or even removal of the company's dividend policy. Such events may result in an overall decrease in dividend income received by a fund and possible capital loss due to a drop in the share price of a company that cuts or omits its dividend payments. This risk may be minimised by investing mainly in companies with a consistent historical record of paying dividends, strong cashflow, or operating in fairly stable industries.
Concentration risk - This is the risk of a fund focusing a greater portion of its assets in a smaller selection of investments. The fall in price of a particular equity investment will have a greater impact on the fund and thus greater losses. This risk may be minimised by the unit trust manager conducting even more rigorous fundamental analysis before investing in each security.
Country and/or foreign securities risk - This risk refers to the risks of investing in foreign markets. Emerging markets may have relatively underdeveloped capital markets, less stringent regulatory and disclosure standards, concentration in only a few industries, greater adverse political, social and economic risks and general lack of liquidity of securities. The risk of expropriation, nationalisation, exchange control restrictions, confiscatory taxation and limitations on the use or removal of funds also exist in emerging markets. Emerging markets may also have less developed procedures for custody, settlement, clearing and registration of securities transactions. This risk may be minimised by conducting thorough research on the respective markets, their regulatory framework, economies, companies, politics and social conditions as well as minimising or omitting investments in markets that are economically or politically unstable or lack a regulatory financial framework and adequate investor protection legislation.
Credit risk - This risk refers to the changes in financial conditions of companies issuing debt securities, which may affect their credit worthiness. This in turn may lead to default in the repayment/payment of principal and interest/profit. These events can lead to loss of capital, delayed or reduced income for a fund resulting in a reduction in a fund's asset value and thus unit price. This risk is minimised by active credit analyses and diversification by the bond portfolio of a fund.
Currency risk - Investing globally means some assets are denominated in currencies other than in Malaysian Ringgit. Hence, fluctuations in the exchange rates of these foreign currencies may have an impact on a fund's income and asset valuations. Adverse fluctuations in exchange rate can result in a decrease in returns and loss of capital. This risk may be minimised by hedging against foreign exchange rate movements.
Dividend policy risk - This is a risk particular to a fund which has heavy emphasis on high-yield dividend stocks. This risk may occur when an investee company's business or fundamentals deteriorate or if there is a change in management policy resulting in a reduction or even removal of the company's dividend policy. This risk may be minimised by investing mainly in companies with a consistent historical record of paying dividends, strong cash flow, or operating in fairly stable industries.
Expectation risk - This risk refers to the fact that the following circumstances may lessen the prospects for recovery:

- An unexpected serious global economic downturn.
- A company's proposed restructuring plan fails for various reasons.
- Management's inability to turn around the company within a reasonable period of time due to factors beyond their control.
- The initial cyclical nature of the problem has become structural.

Should a recovery situation not turn out as expected due to the above reasons, there may be a loss or reduction of profits/income resulting in a reduction in a fund's assets. This risk may be minimised by a thorough study of potential recovery situations (economic, industry and company specific) taking into account the favourable probability of a positive outcome, risks and returns before making any investment in such situations. Continuous monitoring of developments in potential recovery situations may be conducted to ensure that these pan out as expected.
Futures risk - As futures are conducted on an initial margin basis, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in an immediate and substantial loss (or gain) for a fund. Adverse price movements can create additional losses over and above the initial futures contract costs. This risk may be minimised by entering into futures contracts only for hedging purposes. Specifically, a fund will only enter into futures sales contracts to hedge against declines in the value of stocks in the portfolio.

Futures contracts can play a part in reducing the risk of a fund's investment portfolio by providing a hedge against shorter-term volatility of financial markets. However, futures carry certain additional risks that if not properly managed can result in significant losses or underperformance. These include:

Futures liquidity risk
This category of risk includes:

- Risk that fair price or firm bid cannot be obtained from a market counterpart.
- Risk that funds are unable to unwind illiquid positions.
- Market price stability affecting funds' ability to meet margin payments.
Gearing risk - Futures contracts may involve a high degree of "gearing" or "leverage". This means that a small movement in the price of the underlying asset may have a very large magnifying effect in the price of the futures contracts, both in an upward or downward direction.
Mismatch risk - Risk that arises when the terms of underlying investments and the instrument used to hedge its risks do not match. Such mismatches could be due to:

- Mismatch of derivative parcel size (or multiple of this) versus actual physical portion.
- Mismatch of maturity, e.g. 3-month KLIBOR interest rates futures contract versus 1-year bond holding.
- Mismatch of component constituting an index, e.g. Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI) vs actual equity portfolio of fund.
Inflation or purchasing
power risk
- This is the risk that inflation or the loss of purchasing power will erode the value of investment returns and the worth of the investment itself. Investor's returns from a fund may not keep pace with inflation and hence reduce their purchasing power.
Interest rate risk - This risk refers to the effect of interest rate changes on the market value of a bond portfolio. In the event of rising interest rates, prices of fixed income securities will decrease and vice versa. Meanwhile, debt securities with longer maturity and lower coupon/profit rate are more sensitive to interest rate changes. Interest rate movements can lead to fluctuations in bond prices resulting in fluctuations in a fund's investments in such securities. In terms of Islamic debt securities, any fluctuations in conventional interest rates will also affect the indicative/profit rates of these Islamic debt securities, hence, will also lead to a rise or fall in prices of Islamic debt securities. This risk will be minimised via the management of the duration structure of the portfolio of debt securities.

The interest rate is a general economic indicator that will have an impact on the management of funds regardless of whether it is Shariah-based unit trust funds or otherwise.
Liquidity risk - This risk occurs in thinly traded or illiquid securities. If a fund needs to sell a relatively large amount of such securities, the act itself may significantly depress the selling price resulting in a decrease in the value of a fund's assets. The fund is managed in such a way that a portion of the investments is in equity securities and money market instruments that are highly liquid and this allows the fund to meet sizeable redemptions without jeoperdising potential returns.
Loan financing risk - This risk must be considered carefully when unit trust investment is financed by a loan. Borrowings increase the opportunity for profit as well as the incidence of loss. Interest cost may rise and investment value may fall, resulting at times in the lender demanding settlement or more collateral from the investor.
Market risk - This risk refers to developments in the market environment, and typically includes changes in regulations, politics, technology and the economy of the country. Market developments can result in stock market fluctuations which in turn affect a fund's underlying investments and hence its unit price. A fund's diversification into different sectors, however, helps to minimise a fund's exposure risk to any single asset class.
Non-compliance risk - This risk refers to the risk that the unit trust fund manager who does not adhere to legislation or guidelines that govern the investment management and operations of a fund or to a fund's investment mandate stated in the deed. This risk also concerns non-compliance with internal operating policies and the unit trust fund manager acting fraudulently or in a manner that is unfair to unitholders. This risk could result in disruptions to the operations of a fund and potentially lead to reduced income/gains or even losses to unitholders.
Participatory note (P-Note) risk - A P-Note is a market access financial instrument that replicates the financial return of an underlying asset - for example, equity securities. P-Notes are issued by financial institutions, can be listed on a stock exchange or unlisted and generally denominated in USD. Investors in P-Notes enjoy the rights to corporate actions including dividends, rights issues, bonus shares and mergers but usually do not come with voting rights. P-Notes are in general issued for securities traded in restricted markets (such as India, Taiwan and China) where there are one or more complicated and time-consuming administrative hurdles such as foreign exchange controls, controlled regulatory environment, local licensing required for securities trading among others. P-Notes bear the risk of the single issuer of the instrument, specifically the potential insolvency of the issuer of the P-Note. This risk will be mitigated by investing in P-Notes issued by a globally renowned financial institution with a good investment grade credit rating by Standard & Poor’s or Moody’s or Fitch or any other global credit rating agency. The P-Note also carries with it risks inherent in the underlying asset which it replicates, such as country and/or foreign security risk, foreign exchange risk and market risk. These risks will be managed by conducting extensive overall market and macro-economic analysis as well as fundamental security research and to spread investments in different sectors to reap benefits of diversification.
Real estate investment trust (REIT)-related risk - The value of REIT can fluctuate up or down depending on market forces, the general financial and real estate markets, interest rate environment among other factors. A fund which invests in REIT will also be subject to the risks associated with direct ownership of real estate, whose values can be adversely affected by increases in real estate taxes, government policy restricting rental rates and other changes in real estate laws and rising interest rates and a cyclical downturn in the real estate market.
Reclassification of Shariah status risk - This risk is applicable to Shariah-based Funds. This risk refers to the risk that the currently held Shariah-compliant securities in the portfolio of Shariah-based funds may be reclassified to be Shariah non-compliant in the periodic review of the securities by the Shariah Advisory Council of the Securities Commission (“SACSC”), the Shariah Adviser or the Shariah Boards of the relevant Islamic indices. If this occurs, the value of the fund may be adversely affected where the Manager will take the necessary steps to dispose of such securities in accordance with the SACSC, the Shariah Adviser and/or the Shariah Board’s advice.
Reinvestment risk - This is a risk that future proceeds (interest/profit and/or capital) are reinvested at a lower potential interest/profit rate. Reinvestment risk is especially evident during periods of falling interest rates where the coupon/profit payments are reinvested at less than the yield to maturity (actual profit rate) at the time of purchase. Such risk may be minimised by purchasing zero coupon (deep discount) debt securities and through duration management.
Timing of asset allocation risk - This is the risk that, given the prevailing economic and financial market conditions, the unit trust fund manager makes the inappropriate asset allocation decisions between equities and fixed income securities, potentially resulting in lower returns to the fund.
Warrants and options risk - Warrants and options are a leveraged form of investment. A movement in the prices of the equity securities of the warrants and options will generally result in a larger movement in the prices of the warrants and options themselves, that is, higher volatility. The geared effect implies substantial outperformance when the prices of equity securities rise. Conversely, in a falling market, warrants and options can lose a substantial amount of their values, far more than the equity securities.

Returns on warrants and options may be nil and a fund may lose a substantial portion of its investments in them. The returns may not reflect those that were realised if a fund had invested in the equity securities rather than the warrants and options.

Warrants and options have a limited life and will depreciate in value as they approach their maturity date. If a warrant’s exercise price remains above the share price for its remaining subscription period, the warrant is effectively “out of the money” and theoretically without value. Warrants that are not exercised at maturity become worthless.

Warrants and options do not participate in dividends or cash flows that accrue from the underlying equity securities.

This risk may be mitigated by conducting extensive fundamental analysis of the warrants’ equity securities to ensure their viability as an investment for a fund. The percentage allocation of warrants held by a fund will generally mirror the allocation of the equity securities, that is, higher when there is an anticipated market rise and vice versa.

How Do Unit Trusts Compare With Direct Investments In The Stock Market And Bank Deposits?
If a person has a very large amount of money to invest directly in individual stocks, he may be able to achieve a sufficient level of diversification. Losses in one or more of his stocks may substantially reduce the value of his portfolio. A unit trust fund, however, has a diversified portfolio and losses in some of the stocks will probably be offset by gains in other stocks. Nevertheless, a person with an undiversified portfolio may reap great returns if one or more of the stocks increase in value. Unit trust prices rise more gradually when some of its stocks rise in price because unit prices are based on the total value of the portfolio. Bank deposits are generally safe with low risk of capital erosion. The returns are however usually lower than investments carrying more risk and may be eroded by inflation more significantly. Unit trusts have historically yielded better returns than bank deposits but such investments carry more risks of loss.
The equivalent Islamic instrument for fixed deposits is General Investment Accounts.

Management Expense Ratio (MER)
MER will inform the investor of the total annual expenses incurred by a fund as compared to its average NAV. Management expenses include management fee, trustee fee and expenses incurred for fund administrative services. A low MER indicates the effectiveness of the unit trust manager in managing the expenses of the fund.
MER = Total annual expenses incurred by the Fund x 100
Average net asset value of the Fund

Performance Indicators/Benchmark
Investors measure the performance of their investments in unit trusts by various means, and very often take into account pure price changes (rise or fall in unit prices) or the amount of distributions received from a fund. The appropriate method of calculating performance is by including both. This performance measure is called total returns as it includes all sources of income and gains (or losses). Investors need not compute these calculations themselves as total returns figures are published weekly in leading financial magazines, local daily newspapers and foreign financial publications, or the websites of the financial institutions concerned. For a better picture of a fund's performance, you may look at both short (three to six months) and longer-term (three and five years) performance figures. Performance benchmarks such as Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI), FTSE Bursa Malaysia EMAS Index and FTSE Bursa Malaysia EMAS Shariah Index are used to measure the relative performance of equity funds. For global investments, benchmarks such as the MSCI All Countries World Index, MSCI Asia Pacific Ex-Japan Index and the Dow Jones Islamic Market World Index are used. The performance benchmarks for bond funds are the fixed deposit rates or General Investment Account (GIA) rates (one year) as quoted by a major Malaysian financial institution. The performance benchmark for balance funds is a combination of the performance benchmark for equity funds (e.g. KLCI) and the benchmark for bond funds (e.g. fixed deposits rates), in a ratio that reflects the funds’ general asset allocation. For example, a balance fund with a 60% equity allocation mandate would be compared against a composite benchmark comprising a hypothetical investment of 60% in KLCI and 40% in 3-month Kuala Lumpur Interbank Offer Rate (KLIBOR) rates. Other fund categories such as equity and income funds may also adopt composite benchmarks to properly reflect their maximum equity asset allocation ratio.

Who Regulates Unit Trust Funds In Malaysia? 
The Securities Commission regulates the establishment and operations of unit trusts in Malaysia under the Capital Markets And Services Act 2007, Securities Commission Act 1993, the SC Guidelines and other relevant securities law. This requires, among other things, that the unit trust fund manager and the trustee create a deed and register it with the Securities Commission. A copy of the deed may be inspected at the unit trust fund manager's office.
In addition, the Securities Commission has placed stringent requirements in the appointment of the unit trust manager, the trustee, the unit trust manager's directors, chief executive officer, investment committee and Committee Members/Shariah Advisers. The appointment of all these parties must be approved by the Securities Commission.

It is conventional wisdom that you should be willing to accept more risk if you are looking for higher return, or be happy with less return at lower risk. There is however some flexibility in planning to meet your needs and preferences. Answers to the following questions can serve as a guide to choosing the most appropriate funds for investment:
What stage of the life cycle am I at now?
What are my investment goals?
What kind of returns am I looking for?
How much risk am I comfortable with?

Most unit trusts work best when taken as an investment vehicle for the medium to long term. Funds selected for investments should be appropriate for your investment horizon, financial goals and risk profile. Attention should also be given to hedging against inflation and achieving a good degree of diversification. Circumstances may change and you should review your strategy regularly.

The power of compounded returns (returns generating more returns) makes it wise to start saving and investing as early as possible. There may still be the risk of decline in the capital value of investment, but a longer investment horizon will certainly give more room for riding out the bad times or the occasional setbacks.

Regular investments have benefited in many cases from the principle of Ringgit cost averaging. Instead of trying to time the market, which even the experts have difficulty achieving, invest a fixed amount regularly especially when such surplus has been budgeted from a regular stream of income. This practice of investing regularly has a tendency to average out wild fluctuations in prices to your benefit.

Historically, unit trusts have provided better returns in the longer term, but have entailed greater short-term risks than other savings vehicles. Your planning and expectations must accordingly be attuned to a longer investment horizon. Unit trusts offer potentially higher returns over the longer term although they do present wider fluctuations in the short run.

Diversification, or spreading your investments among the various fund options can help ride out interim fluctuations. It works because the different asset classes have different fundamental characteristics and can move in different directions. For example, when the economy faces a downturn and interest rates are falling, bonds will usually outperform equities, whereas when the economy is booming, equities will generally outperform bonds. In the long run, diversification increases returns while lowering risks, which is why it is the single most important part of any investment strategy.

Review your investments regularly to ensure that they still reflect your financial goals and personal circumstances. For example, at one stage of your life you might be seeking longer-term investment that focuses on building savings and accumulating capital. Later on, you might prefer a lower-risk investment that places more emphasis on income. Whatever the reason, making adjustments over time is essential and needs to be incorporated into your investment strategy. Through regular monitoring you can ensure that your investment portfolio continues to match your financial objectives.